The National Burden of Colorectal Cancer in the United States from 1990 to 2019

Saqr Alsakarneh, Fouad Jaber, Azizullah Beran, Mohammad Aldiabat, Yazan Abboud, Noor Hassan, Mohamed Abdallah, Thaer Abdelfattah, Laith Numan, Wendell Clarkston, Mohammad Bilal, Aasma Shaukat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

CRC accounts for approximately a tenth of all cancer cases and deaths in the US. Due to large differences in demographics among the different states, we aim to determine trends in the CRC epidemiology and across different states, age groups, and genders. CRC rates, age-adjusted to the standard US population, were obtained from the GBD 2019 database. Time trends were estimated as annual percentage change (APC). A pairwise comparison was conducted between age- and gender-specific trends using the tests of parallelism and coincidence. Age-specific trends were also assessed in two age subgroups: younger adults aged 15–49 years and older adults aged 50–74 years. We also analyzed the prevalence, incidence, mortality, and DALYs in the US between 1990 and 2019. A total of 5.53 million patients were diagnosed with CRC in the US between 1990 and 2019. Overall, CRC incidence rates have significantly increased in younger adults (11.1 per 100,000 persons) and decreased in older adults (136.8 per 100,000 persons) (AAPC = 1.2 vs. −0.6; AAPC difference = 1.8, p < 0.001). Age-specific trends were neither identical (p < 0.001) nor parallel (p < 0.001), suggesting that CRC incidence rates are different and increasing at a greater rate in younger adults compared to older adults. However, for both men and women (49.4 and 35.2 per 100,000 persons), incidence rates have decreased over the past three decades at the same rate (AAPC = −0.5 vs. −0.5; AAPC difference = 0, p = 0.1). Geographically, the southern states had the highest mortality rates with Mississippi having the highest rate of 20.1 cases per 100,000 population in 2019. Massachusetts, New York, and the District of Colombia had the greatest decreases in mortality over the study period (−42.1%, −41.4%, and −40.9%). Decreased mortality was found in all states except Mississippi, where the mortality of CRC increased over the study period (+1.5%). This research provides crucial insights for policymakers to tailor resource allocation, emphasizing the dynamic nature of CRC burden across states and age groups, ultimately informing targeted strategies for prevention and intervention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number205
JournalCancers
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Keywords

  • colon cancer
  • colorectal cancer
  • epidemiology
  • health disparity
  • trends

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