The mutational landscape in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and its impact on allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes: a Center for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR) analysis

Matthew Mei, Raju Pillai, Soyoung Kim, Noel Estrada-Merly, Michelle Afkhami, Lixin Yang, Zhuo Meng, Muhammad Bilal Abid, Mahmoud Aljurf, Ulrike Bacher, Amer Beitinjaneh, Christopher Bredeson, Jean Yves Cahn, Jan Cerny, Edward Copelan, Corey Cutler, Zachariah DeFilipp, Miguel Angel Diaz Perez, Nosha Farhadfar, César O. FreytesShahinaz M. Gadalla, Siddhartha Ganguly, Robert Peter Gale, Usama Gergis, Michael R. Grunwald, Betty K. Hamilton, Shahrukh Hashmi, Gerhard C. Hildebrandt, Hillard M. Lazarus, Mark Litzow, Reinhold Munker, Hemant S. Murthy, Sunita Nathan, Taiga Nishihori, Sagar S. Patel, David Rizzieri, Sachiko Seo, Mithun Vinod Shah, Melhem Solh, Leo F. Verdonck, Ravi Vij, Ronald M. Sobecks, Betul Oran, Bart L. Scott, Wael Saber, Ryotaro Nakamura

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Abstract

Somatic mutations are recognized as an important prognostic factor in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). However, limited data are available regarding their impact on outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this registry analysis conducted in collaboration with the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry database/sample repository, we identified 313 adult patients with CMML (median age: 64 years, range, 28-77) who underwent allogeneic HCT during 2001-2017 and had an available biospecimen in the form of a peripheral blood sample obtained prior to the start of conditioning. In multivariate analysis, a CMML-specific prognostic scoring system (CPSS) score of intermediate-2 (HR=1.46, P=0.049) or high (HR=3.22, P=0.0004) correlated significantly with overall survival. When the molecularly informed CPSS-Mol prognostic model was applied, a high CPSS-Mol score (HR=2 P=0.0079) correlated significantly with overall survival. The most common somatic mutations were in ASXL1 (62%), TET2 (35%), KRAS/NRAS (33% combined), and SRSF2 (31%). DNMT3A and TP53 mutations were associated with decreased overall survival (HR=1.70 [95% CI: 1.11-2.60], P=0.0147 and HR=2.72 [95% CI: 1.37-5.39], P=0.0042, respectively) while DNMT3A, JAK2, and TP53 mutations were associated with decreased disease-free survival (HR=1.66 [95% CI: 1.11-2.49], P=0.0138, HR=1.79 [95% CI: 1.06-3.03], P=0.0293, and HR=2.94 [95% CI: 1.50-5.79], P=0.0018, respectively). The only mutation associated with increased relapse was TP53 (HR=2.94, P=0.0201). Nonetheless, the impact of TP53 mutations specifically should be interpreted cautiously given their rarity in CMML. We calculated the goodness of fit measured by Harrell’s C-index for both the CPSS and CPSS-Mol, which were very similar. In summary, via registry data we have determined the mutational landscape in patients with CMML who underwent allogeneic HCT, and demonstrated an association between CPSS-Mol and transplant outcomes although without major improvement in the risk prediction beyond that provided by the CPSS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)150-160
Number of pages11
JournalHaematologica
Volume108
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2023

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