The multiple Maillard reactions of ribose and deoxyribose sugars and sugar phosphates

Admire Munanairi, Steven K. O'Banion, Ryan Gamble, Elizabeth Breuer, Andrew W. Harris, Roger K. Sandwick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) undergoes the Maillard reaction with amines at significantly higher rates than most other sugars and sugar phosphates. The presence of an intramolecular phosphate group, which catalyzes the early stages of the Maillard reaction, provides the opportunity for the R5P molecule to undergo novel reaction paths creating unique Maillard products. The initial set of reactions leading to an Amadori product (phosphorylated) and to an α-dicarbonyl phosphate compound follows a typical Maillard reaction sequence, but an observed phosphate hydrolysis accompanying the reaction adds to the complexity of the products formed. The reaction rate for the loss of R5P is partially dependent on the pKa of the amine but also is correlated to the protonation of an early intermediate of the reaction sequence. In the presence of oxygen, a carboxymethyl group conjugated to the amine is a major product of the reaction of R5P with N-acetyllysine while little of this product is generated in the absence of oxygen. Despite lacking a critical hydroxyl group necessary for the Maillard reaction, 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate (dR5P) still generates an Amadori-like product (with a carbonyl on the C-3 carbon) and undergoes phosphate cleavage. Two highly UV-absorbing products of dR5P were amine derivatives of 5-methylene-2-pyrrolone and 2-formylpyrrole. The reaction of dR5P with certain amines generates a set of products that exhibit an interesting absorbance at 340 nm and a high fluorescence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2575-2592
Number of pages18
JournalCarbohydrate Research
Issue number17
StatePublished - Dec 10 2007


  • Deoxyribose 5-phosphate
  • Glycation
  • Maillard
  • Ribose 5-phosphate


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