The metal and metalloprotein profile of human plasma as biomarkers for stroke diagnosis

Keaton S. Nahan, Kyle B. Walsh, Opeolu Adeoye, Julio A. Landero-Figueroa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality, affects someone in the United States every 40 s. Stroke biomarkers, including those that could be used as a blood test for diagnosis of stroke, have been particularly elusive. We performed a double blind study to identify human plasma biomarkers for the diagnosis of stroke, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We utilized a three-track approach based on the total metal profile, the metal cofactor levels among metalloproteins, and the identification of stroke-related metalloproteins. The study included 14 case-control pairs of AIS and 23 case-control pairs of ICH. Controls were matched to cases based on gender, ethnicity, and age (±5 years). AIS cases were statistically higher from their respective controls for protein bound co-factors Se and Cd, while unique correlations of metal cofactor concentrations among metalloproteins were identified between Pb-W, Sr-W, Pb-V, and Cu-V. ICH cases were statistically higher from their respective controls for Se and Co cofactors, whereas Cd and Pb were statistically lower. Unique correlations between metal cofactors for ICH cases were identified between Pb-W, Sr-W, Pb-V, and Cu-V. Stroke-related metalloproteins were identified, including calpain-15, protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1, tau-tubulin kinase 1, and voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was able to classify patients between stroke cases or controls with 93% accuracy as well as classify patients with one of the four stroke groups with 85% accuracy. Additionally, this study found utmost importance in vanadium (V) and tungsten (W) correlations for both bound and total metal concentrations, suggestive of binding to transferrin or inhibition of oxidoreductases. Future work in stroke patients will seek to quantify varying selenoproteins, including selenoprotein P and glutathione peroxidase and identified zinc finger tissue leakage proteins, and further explore the role of trace metal fluctuations with transferrin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-91
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Volume42
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

Keywords

  • Cadmium
  • Metalloprotein
  • PCA
  • Selenium
  • Selenoprotein
  • Stroke

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