The plasma membrane tetraspan molecule MS4A4A is selectively expressed by macrophage-lineage cells, but its function is unknown. Here we report that MS4A4A was restricted to murine and human mononuclear phagocytes and was induced during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation in the presence of interleukin 4 or dexamethasone. Human MS4A4A was co-expressed with M2/M2-like molecules in subsets of normal tissue-resident macrophages, infiltrating macrophages from inflamed synovium and tumor-associated macrophages. MS4A4A interacted and colocalized with the β-glucan receptor dectin-1 in lipid rafts. In response to dectin-1 ligands, Ms4a4a-deficient macrophages showed defective signaling and defective production of effector molecules. In experimental models of tumor progression and metastasis, Ms4a4a deficiency in macrophages had no impact on primary tumor growth, but was essential for dectin-1-mediated activation of macrophages and natural killer (NK) cell–mediated metastasis control. Thus, MS4A4A is a tetraspan molecule selectively expressed in macrophages during differentiation and polarization, essential for dectin-1-dependent activation of NK cell–mediated resistance to metastasis.