The internal-external respiratory motion correlation is unaffected by audiovisual biofeedback

Harry Steel, Sean Pollock, Danny Lee, Paul Keall, Taeho Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This study evaluated if an audiovisual (AV) biofeedback causes variation in the level of external and internal correlation due to its interactive intervention in natural breathing. The internal (diaphragm) and external (abdominal wall) respiratory motion signals of 15 healthy human subjects under AV biofeedback and free breathing (FB) were analyzed and measures of correlation and regularity taken. Regularity metrics (root mean square error and spectral power dispersion metric) were obtained and the correlation between these metrics and the internal and external correlation was investigated. For FB and AV biofeedback assisted breathing the mean correlations found between internal and external respiratory motion were 0.96 ± 0.02 and 0.96 ± 0.03, respectively. This means there is no evidence to suggest (p-value = 0.88) any difference in the correlation between internal and external respiratory motion with the use of AV biofeedback. Our results confirmed the hypothesis that the internal-external correlation with AV biofeedback is the same as for free breathing. Should this correlation be maintained for patients, AV biofeedback can be implemented in the clinic with confidence as regularity improvements using AV biofeedback with an external signal will be reflected in increased internal motion regularity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-102
Number of pages6
JournalAustralasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2014


  • Audiovisual biofeedback
  • Internal-external correlation
  • Respiratory motion regularity


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