Several naturally occurring anti-insulin CD4 T cells were isolated from islet infiltrates of NOD mice. In accordance with the results of others, these T cells recognized the segment of the β-chain from residues 9-23. Peptides encompassing the B:(9-23) sequence bound weakly to I-Ag7 in two main contiguous registers in which two residues at the carboxyl end, P20Gly and P21Glu, influenced binding and T cell reactivity. Naturally occurring insulin-reactive T cells exhibited differing reactivities with the carboxyl-terminal amino acids, although various single residue changes in either the flanks or the core segments affected T cell responses. The insulin peptides represent another example of a weak MHC-binding ligand that is highly immunogenic, giving rise to distinct populations of autoimmune T cells.