The inorganic NItrate and eXercise performance in Heart Failure (iNIX-HF) phase II clinical trial: Rationale and study design

Andrew R. Coggan, Lauren K. Park, Susan B. Racette, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Pattie Lenzen, Kathryn Vehe, Peter M. Dore, Kenneth B. Schechtman, Linda R. Peterson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Heart failure (HF) is a debilitating and often fatal disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Diminished nitric oxide synthesis, signaling, and bioavailability are believed to contribute to poor skeletal muscle function and aerobic capacity. The aim of this clinical trial (iNIX-HF) is to determine the acute and longer-term effectiveness of inorganic nitrate supplementation on exercise performance in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods: This clinical trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-arm design study in which patients with HFrEF (n = 75) are randomized to receive 10 mmol potassium nitrate (KNO3) or a placebo capsule daily for 6 wk. Primary outcome measures are muscle power determined by isokinetic dynamometry and peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) determined during an incremental treadmill exercise test. Endpoints include the acute effects of a single dose of KNO3 and longer-term effects of 6 wk of KNO3. The study is adequately powered to detect expected increases in these outcomes at P < 0.05 with 1-β>0.80. Discussion: The iNIX-HF phase II clinical trial will evaluate the effectiveness of inorganic nitrate supplements as a new treatment to ameliorate poor exercise capacity in HFrEF. This study also will provide critical preliminary data for a future ‘pivotal’, phase III, multi-center trial of the effectiveness of nitrate supplements not only for improving exercise performance, but also for improving symptoms and decreasing other major cardiovascular endpoints. The potential public health impact of identifying a new, relatively inexpensive, safe, and effective treatment that improves overall exercise performance in patients with HFrEF is significant.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101208
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials Communications
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Dietary nitrate
  • Heart failure
  • Muscle power
  • Nitric oxide
  • Peak oxygen consumption


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