The influence of mental health on outcomes following total shoulder arthroplasty

Eitan M. Kohan, Alexander W. Aleem, Aaron M. Chamberlain, Jay D. Keener

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Anxiety and depression symptoms have been associated with higher pain and lower functional scores in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA). The influence of mental health on outcomes following total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) for GHOA has not been fully investigated. Methods: This observational cohort study included 143 shoulders in 135 subjects undergoing TSA for GHOA. Preoperative imaging was assessed for glenoid wear pattern. Patients completed preoperative and postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS), and PROMIS Upper Extremity (UE), Physical Function (PF), and Pain Interference (PI) scores. The Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Score (WOOS) was collected postoperatively. Mean postoperative pain and functional scores, improvement from preoperative scores, and surgical regret were compared between varying severity of anxiety or depression and pattern of glenoid wear. Results: Compared to subjects without anxiety, those with moderate-to-severe anxiety reported worse postoperative ASES (p=0.019), WOOS (p<0.01) and PROMIS UE (p=0.02) and higher PROMIS PI scores (p<0.01). Compared to those without depression, those with moderate-to-severe depression reported worse postoperative ASES and WOOS and higher VAS and PROMIS Pain scores (p<0.01). Linear regression showed that anxiety and concentric glenoid wear were associated with worse postoperative PROMIS scores. There were no significant differences in pre-to-postoperative improvement in any outcome measures among those with and without anxiety or depression. Patients with moderate-to-severe depression were less likely to want to undergo the same procedure again (p=0.035). Discussion: Patients with anxiety and depression report similar improvements in pain and function following TSA similar to those without depression or anxiety. Despite the similar improvement, those with moderate-to-severe depression and anxiety symptoms reported persistently lower functional and higher pain scores. Though most patients are satisfied following TSA, those with moderate-to-severe depression may be more likely to regret undergoing surgery. Future studies should identify mental health symptoms preoperatively and evaluate the effect of preoperative intervention on postoperative outcomes following TSA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18-27
Number of pages10
JournalSeminars in Arthroplasty
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 2020


  • Anxiety
  • Arthroplasty
  • Depression
  • Glenohumeral arthritis
  • Mental health
  • Outcomes
  • Shoulder


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