The Impact of Neighborhood Deprivation on Glycemic Control for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes During Pregnancy

Leilah Zahedi-Spung, Brock Polnaszek, Hillary Duckham, Fan Zhang, Molly J. Stout, Cynthia J. Herrick, Rachel Paul, Ebony B. Carter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The impact of neighborhood level factors on glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes is understudied. The primary objective was to determine whether there is an association between glycemic control during pregnancy and level of neighborhood deprivation, defined by area deprivation index (ADI). Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with type 2 diabetes who received care at a tertiary referral center from 2007 to 2017. Patients living in more deprived neighborhoods (ADI >85th national percentile) were compared to those living in less deprived neighborhoods (ADI ≤85th percentile). The primary outcome was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over time. Demographic characteristics were compared between groups, and trends in mean A1c through each trimester were tested with repeated measures analysis. Results: Of 237 women meeting study criteria, 93 (39.2%) lived in less deprived (low ADI) and 144 (60.8%) lived in more deprived neighborhoods (high ADI). Women living in more deprived neighborhoods were more likely to be Black (86.8% vs. 53.8%, p < 0.01), less likely to be married (11.3% vs. 31.2%, p < 0.01), and had more severe diabetes (p = 0.05). Both groups achieved significant improvement in HbA1c across each trimester using repeated measures analysis. Those living in more deprived neighborhoods had significantly more improvement in HbA1c from their initial visit to the third trimester compared to those in less deprived neighborhoods, (p = 0.01) such that there was no longer a statistically significant disparity in HbA1c by the third trimester (6.69 ± 0.97 Less deprived vs. 6.95 ± 1.22 more deprived, p = 0.19). Conclusions: Low-income women living in more deprived neighborhoods enter pregnancy with significantly worse glycemic control than those living in less deprived neighborhoods, but the gap in glycemic control largely closes by the end of pregnancy with similar maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1156-1164
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Women's Health
Volume31
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022

Keywords

  • area deprivation index
  • glycemic control
  • neighborhood deprivation
  • racial inequities
  • type 2 diabetes

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