Different human and animal pathogens trigger distinct immune responses in their hosts. The infection of bacteria or viruses can trigger type I pro-inflammatory immune responses (e.g., IFN-γ, TNF-α, TH1 cells), whereas infection by helminths typically elicits a type II host resistance and tolerizing immune response (e.g., IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TH2 cells). In some respects, the type I and II immune responses induced by these different classes of pathogens are antagonistic. Indeed, recent studies indicate that infection by helminths differentially shapes the response and outcome of subsequent infection by viruses and bacteria. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on how helminth infections influence concurrent or subsequent microbial infections and also discuss the implications for helminth-mediated immunity on the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87
Number of pages1
JournalVeterinary Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 3 2023


  • Helminth
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • co-infection
  • type 2 immune response
  • viruses and bacteria


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