The Impact of Ethnicity on Craniosynostosis in the United States

Gina N. Sacks, Gary B. Skolnick, Ali Trachtenberg, Sybill D. Naidoo, Joseph Lopez, Albert K. Oh, Jerry W. Chao, Amir Dorafshar, Christian J. Vercler, Steven R. Buchman, Kamlesh Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


While many studies have examined potential risk factors for nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, there have been no publications to date investigating the role of ethnicity in the United States. The current study was undertaken as the first multi-center investigation to examine the relationship between ethnicity and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, looking at both overall prevalence as well as potential correlation between ethnicity and pattern of affected suture site. A chart review of patients diagnosed with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis treated at four major children's hospitals was performed to obtain ethnicity data. Analysis was preformed based on ethnic group as well as suture site affected. To account for potentialOne regional selection bias, the KID database (1997-2012) was utilized to identify all cases of craniosynostosis on a national level. This data was analyzed against birth rates by ethnicity obtained from CDC WONDER natality database.Amongst the 2112 cases of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis at all institutions, Caucasians and African Americans were consistently the predominant ethnic groups. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of affected suture type with African Americans more likely to present with unicoronal synostosis and Caucasians more likely to present with metopic synostosis (P = 0.005). The national data revealed that there were more cases of craniosynostosis in Caucasians and fewer in African Americans than expected when compared to population birth rates. Our findings demonstrate that the Caucasian race is associated with increased rates of synostosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2526-2529
Number of pages4
JournalThe Journal of craniofacial surgery
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019


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