The impact of environmental and entomological factors on intervillage filarial focality in the Nile Delta.

H. A. Farid, Z. S. Morsy, A. N. Hassan, R. E. Hammad, R. Faris, A. M. Kandil, E. S. Ahmed, G. J. Weil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


In the Nile Delta of Egypt, levels of W. bancrofti infection in humans vary among nearby villages. Ecological and entomological factors that might explain variability between adjacent villages, El Qolzom (QOL) and Kafr Shorafa (KSH) with respective 10.8% and 2.1% microfilaria (MF) prevalence were examined. The epidemiological study covered 127 and 79 houses scattered in QOL and KSH, respectively, and described 25 items relating to housing characters, socio-economic state and human activities. It revealed that QOL is more rural than KSH, and therefore would be more favorable to the vector mosquito population and hence, filarial parasite transmission in QOL. Weekly records (N = 81 and 62 for QOL and KSH, respectively) of ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed taken at sunset, over 3 months during summer, revealed no significant variation between villages. Those measured at sunrise revealed significant, although inconsistent, differences at a particular month, but no difference over the whole period. Whether climatological conditions could have influenced mosquito bionomics in the study villages is questionable. Abundance of female Cx. pipiens collected weekly by standard sampling methods using 247 and 240 dry ice-baited CDC trap-nights in QOL and KSH, respectively, oral aspiration from within 346 and 304 respective house-nights, and 65 and 40 respective ovitrap-nights, did not vary significantly over the whole study period. Daily survival and survival to infectivity rates of wild-caught mosquitoes were based on parity and were generally more elevated in QOL than KSH. Monthly records of abundance and survival seemed to favor filaria transmission by mosquitoes in QOL. Autogeny amounted to 6.5 and 20% for QOL and KSH, respectively. Experimental infection of Cx. pipiens from the study villages with W. bancrofti revealed that QOL females were 3.3 times more efficient vectors than KSH ones, mainly because QOL mosquitoes survived longer. The ultimate outcome of observed entomological factors might explain its preponderance in QOL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-485
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2000


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