Genital and gynecologic infections are common medical problems, affecting millions of women worldwide. The spectrum of these infections extends from the labia, including processes such as necrotizing fasciitis and anogenital warts, to the upper reproductive tracts in conditions including endometritis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Although often a clinical diagnosis, the radiologist plays an important role in determining the etiology of acute abdominal and pelvic pain as well as facilitating the diagnosis for cases which are not clinically straightforward. Imaging also plays an important role in assessing the complications and sequelae of these conditions, including infertility, chronic abdominal and pelvic pain, and pelvic adhesions. Familiarity with the appearances of these infections, their complications, and their potential mimics on sonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and hysterosalpingography is important for timely diagnosis and optimal clinical outcomes.