Efficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) budding requires an interaction between the PTAP late domain in the viral p6Gag protein and the cellular protein TSG101. In yeast, Vps23pfrSG101 binds both Vps28p and Vps37p to form the soluble ESCRT-I complex, which functions in sorting ubiquitylated protein cargoes into multivesicular bodies. Human cells also contain ESCRT-I, but the VPS37 component(s) have not been identified. Bioinformatics and yeast two-hybrid screening methods were therefore used to identify four novel human proteins (VPS37A-D) that share weak but significant sequence similarity with yeast Vps37p and to demonstrate that VPS37A and VPS37B bind TSG101. Detailed studies produced four lines of evidence that human VPS37B is a Vps37p ortholog. 1) TSG101 bound to several different sites on VPS37B, including a putative coiled-coil region and a PTAP motif. 2) TSG101 and VPS28 co-immunoprecipitated with VPS37B-FLAG, and the three proteins comigrated together in soluble complexes of the correct size for human ESCRT-I (∼350 kDa). 3) Like TGS101, VPS37B became trapped on aberrant endosomal compartments in the presence of VPS4A proteins lacking ATPase activity. 4) Finally, VPS37B could recruit TSG101/ESCRT-I activity and thereby rescue the budding of both mutant Gag particles and HIV-1 viruses lacking native late domains. Further studies of ESCRT-I revealed that TSG101 mutations that inhibited PTAP or VPS28 binding blocked HIV-1 budding. Taken together, these experiments define new components of the human ESCRT-I complex and characterize several TSG101 protein/protein interactions required for HIV-1 budding and infectivity.