Purpose Congenital clubfoot is a serious birth defect that affects nearly 0.1% of all births. Though there is strong evidence for a genetic basis of isolated clubfoot, aside from a handful of associations, much of the heritability remains unexplained. Methods By systematically examining the genes involved in syndromic clubfoot, we may find new candidate genes and pathways to investigate in isolated clubfoot. Results In addition to the expected enrichment of extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling genes, we find many genes involved in syndromic clubfoot encode peroxisomal matrix proteins, as well as enzymes necessary for sulfation of proteoglycans, an important part of connective tissue. Further, the association of Filamin B with isolated clubfoot as well as syndromic clubfoot is an encouraging finding. Conclusion We should examine these categories for enrichment in isolated clubfoot patients to increase our understanding of the underlying biology and pathophysiology of this deformity. Understanding the spectrum of syndromes that have clubfoot as a feature enables a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder and directs future genetic screening efforts toward certain genes and genetic pathways.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)238-244
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Children's Orthopaedics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2019


  • Genetics
  • Isolated clubfoot
  • Talipes equinovarus


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