Suppressive myeloid cells inhibit antitumor immunity by preventing T-cell responses. Immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3; also known as LILRB4) is highly expressed on tumor-associated myeloid cells and promotes their suppressive phenotype. However, the ligand that engages ILT3 within the tumor microenvironment and renders tumor-associated myeloid cells suppressive is unknown. Using a screening approach, we identified fibronectin as a functional ligand for ILT3. The interaction of fibronectin with ILT3 polarized myeloid cells toward a suppressive state, and these effects were reversed with an ILT3-specific antibody that blocked the interaction of ILT3 with fibronectin. Furthermore, ex vivo treatment of human tumor explants with anti-ILT3 reprogrammed tumor-associated myeloid cells toward a stimulatory phenotype. Thus, the ILT3–fibronectin interaction represents a “stromal checkpoint” through which the extracellular matrix actively suppresses myeloid cells. By blocking this interaction, tumor-associated myeloid cells may acquire a stimulatory phenotype, potentially resulting in increased antitumor T-cell responses.