The use of innovative imaging practices in the field of interventional cardiology and electrophysiology has led to significant progress in both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. 3D reconstructions of 2D images allows a proceduralist to develop a superior understanding of patient anatomy. Medical extended reality (MXR) technologies employ 3D interactive images for the user to improve depth perception and spatial awareness. Although MXR procedural navigation is a relatively new concept, the potential for use within interventional cardiology and EP is significant with the eventual goal of improving patient outcomes and reducing patient harm. This review article will discuss the current landscape of MXR use in the catheterization lab including pre-procedural planning, intraprocedural planning and intraprocedural guidance in diagnostic cardiac catheterization, valvar and coronary interventions, electrophysiology studies, and device implants.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere22
JournalUS Cardiology Review
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Interventional cardiology
  • electrophysiology
  • extended reality
  • hologram


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