Classic transplantation dogma mandated bilateral lung replacement for lung transplant candidates with end-stage emphysema to avoid air trapping in the native lung and subsequent crowding of the newly transplanted lung. During a recent 12-month period 11 patients with emphysema received a single lung transplant. There was no hospital mortality and only one patient had any notable degree of air trapping in the native lung. Substantial improvement in pulmonary function was seen as early as 2 weeks after transplantation, with significant functional improvement seen by 6 weeks, despite some residual ventilation-perfusion mismatch. We have demonstrated the utility and safety of single lung transplantation for patients with end-stage emphysema, and it is our operation of choice in recipients more than 50 years of age.