Three decades of promise have culminated in the development of gene therapies that can be applied to a broad range of human diseases. After a brief history, we provide an overview of gene therapy types and delivery methods, gene editing technologies, regulatory affairs, clinical trials, approved products, ongoing challenges, and future goals. Information on clinical trials of candidates and on approved products for gene therapy developed between 1988 and 2020 is systematically collated. To obtain this global information, we scanned and reviewed more than 46,000 records of clinical trials from 17 clinical trial database providers. The medical benefits of transformative gene therapies are gradually being accepted by payors, and a significant increase in the number of gene therapy clinical trials and approved gene therapy products has resulted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1602-1619
Number of pages18
JournalDrug Discovery Today
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • Clinical trials
  • Gene delivery
  • Gene editing
  • Gene therapy
  • Market access


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