Objective: This study identified risk factors for ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) through a case-control study comparing women with GCT to women with epithelial ovarian cancers (OC) and general population (GP) controls. Methods: Women with GCT and OC were identified from our hospital tumor board and the Massachusetts and New Hampshire Statewide Cancer Registries between January, 1988 and November, 2008. Age, gender and county matched GP controls were identified through town books in Massachusetts and drivers' license lists in New Hampshire. Epidemiologic factors including age, race, obesity, pregnancy history, smoking, and family history were evaluated. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated and adjusted for race and age. Results: Seventy-two women with GCT, 1578 GP controls, and 1511 OC controls were identified. Patients with GCT were significantly more likely to be non-white (OR 8.49; 4.07, 17.7), obese with a BMI > 30 (OR 5.80; 3.01, 11.2), and have a family history of breast (OR 2.13; 1.19, 3.80) or ovarian cancer (OR 2.89; 1.08, 7.72) than GP controls. The risk of developing GCT was significantly decreased in women who smoked (OR 0.46; 0.27, 0.78), used oral contraceptive pills (OR 0.32; 0.17, 0.63) or were parous with 1-2 (OR 0.30; 0.16-0.56) or greater than 2 births (OR 0.50; 0.27, 0.94) when compared to GP controls. Conclusion: These findings suggest an independent association between non-white race and obesity as a hyperestrogenic state in the development of GCT while parity and OCP use may be protective. An unknown familial predisposition for GCT may exist.
- Granulosa cell tumor
- Ovarian cancer