The lymphatic system (LS) is composed of lymphoid organs and a network of vessels that transport interstitial fluid, antigens, lipids, cholesterol, immune cells, and other materials in the body. Abnormal development or malfunction of the LS has been shown to play a key role in the pathophysiology of many disease states. Thus, improved understanding of the anatomical and molecular characteristics of the LS may provide approaches for disease prevention or treatment. Recent advances harnessing single-cell technologies, clinical imaging, discovery of biomarkers, and computational tools have led to the development of strategies to study the LS. This Review summarizes the outcomes of the NIH workshop entitled “Yet to be Charted: Lymphatic System in Health and Disease,” held in September 2022, with emphasis on major areas for advancement. International experts showcased the current state of knowledge regarding the LS and highlighted remaining challenges and opportunities to advance the field.