This multicenter, randomized, double-blind study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily oral granisetron 2 mg (n = 134) and placebo (n = 126) as prophylaxis for nausea and emesis in patients receiving upper abdominal fractionated radiotherapy. Patients were scheduled to receive 10-30 fractions of radiotherapy; granisetron (two 1-mg tablets) or placebo was administered 1 hr before radiotherapy on each scheduled treatment day. Treatment comparisons were made at 24 hr and at 10 and 20 fractions. Patients treated with granisetron experienced greater emetic control than those treated with placebo as evidenced by median times to first emesis (35 vs. 9 days, p < 0.001) and first nausea (11 vs. 1 day, p < 0.001). Overall endpoint analysis showed that proportionally more granisetron than placebo patients were emesis free (57.5% vs. 42.1%, p = 0.0047) and nausea free (30.6% vs. 16.7%, p = 0.0042). Furthermore, 25% more granisetron-treated than placebo-treated patients were emesis free and 20% more were nausea free on at least 80% of study treatment days. The most commonly reported adverse experiences in granisetron-treated patients were diarrhea, asthenia, and constipation. These findings demonstrate that a once-daily, 2-mg dose of oral granisetron is well tolerated and significantly more effective than placebo in preventing nausea and emesis induced by fractionated radiotherapy to the upper abdomen.
- Fractionated upper-abdominal radiation
- Radiation-induced nausea/emesis