This investigation evaluated the effect of phenylpropanolamine on the weight gain associated with 2 weeks of abstinence from smoking. Subjects were 57 adult female cigarette smokers who were randomly assigned, in a double-blind procedure, to chew gum with phenylpropanolamine or placebo gum, or to chew no gum. After a baseline assessment, subjects were paid to quit smoking for a period of 2 weeks. Forty-one (72%) of the 57 subjects were successful in quitting smoking for the 2-week period. Results indicated that, relative to the other two conditions, abstinent subjects receiving phenylpropanolamine gained 1.5 to 1.9 pounds less weight (p < 0.05). In addition, abstinence rates were higher (p < 0.03) and dietary intake lower for subjects receiving phenylpropanolamine (p < 0.05) relative to the other two conditions. No changes in physical activity were observed. It is concluded that phenylpropanolamine may help reduce weight gain associated with smoking abstinence and in this way may enhance smoking cessation efforts in certain individuals.