Background: Surgical videos are increasingly common, although their role in residency curricula remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an educational surgical video on resident performance of an open carpal tunnel release through an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills and serial questionnaires. Methods: Twenty-two residents representing six postgraduate years were randomized to receive text-based materials with or without a surgical video before performing a carpal tunnel release on human cadavers. Procedures were video recorded, anonymized, and independently evaluated by three hand surgeons using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills global rating scale, a procedure-specific technical rating scale, a record of operative errors, and pass/fail designation. Residents completed questionnaires before and after the procedure to track confidence in their technical skills. Results: Residents in their first and second postgraduate years (n = 10) who watched the surgical video committed fewer operative errors (median, 4 versus 1.3; p = 0.043) and were more confident in their abilities following the procedure (median, 75 versus 32; p = 0.043) than those receiving text resources alone. There were no significant differences in Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills performance or questionnaire responses among more senior residents (n = 12). The technical rating scale was internally consistent (Cronbach α = 0.95; 95 percent CI, 0.91 to 0.98), reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.73; 95 percent CI, 0.40 to 0.88), and correlated with surgical experience (Spearman ρ = 0.57; p = 0.006). Conclusion: Watching an educational surgical video to prepare for a cadaveric procedure significantly reduced operative errors and improved confidence among junior trainees performing a carpal tunnel release.