The effect of diamide (diazene dicarboxylic acid bis[N,N′-dimethylamide) on cyclic AMP levels and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase in human peripheral blood lymphocytes was examined. In the absence of mitogenic lectins, 5 · 10-3-1 · 10-4 M diamide markedly increased intracellular cyclic AMP with variable effects at higher levels. In the presence of phytohemagglutinin or concanavalin A, 5 · 10· M or higher diamide concentrations consistently decreased cyclic AMP levels, usually to control levels or below, while 1 · 10-4-1 · 10-5 M diamide augmented the lectin-induced rise in cyclic AMP. When intact lymphocytes were incubated with diamide, phosphodiesterase activity against both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, assayed in homogenates of these cells, was inhibited at concentrations as low as 1 · 10-6 M. In contrast, when diamide was incubated with phosphodiesterase extracted from lymphocytes there was a dual effect. At low substrate concentrations and high diamide concentrations diamide was a non-competitive inhibitor of phosphodiesterase with a Ki of 1.3-2.5 mM for cyclic AMP and 3.3-10 mM for cyclic GMP. In contrast, at high substrate concentrations diamide was an 'uncompetitive' activator of phosphodiesterase activity for both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. The effects of diamide could be largely or completely blocked by glutathione or dithiothreitol, indicating that sulfhydryl reactivity was involved in diamide's action on lymphocyte phosphodiesterase activity and intracellular cyclic AMP levels. These data demonstrate that diamide is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor both on phosphodiesterase extracted from lymphocytes and when incubated with intact lymphocytes and that diamide may increase or decrease intracellular cyclic AMP levels depending on the concentration of diamide used.
- Cyclic AMP
- Sulfhydryl group