We studied effects of compliance on the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in an Egyptian village. Baseline microfilaremia (mf) and filarial antigenemia rates were 11.5% and 19.0%, respectively. The MDA compliance rates were excellent (> 85%). However, individual compliance was highly variable; 7.4% of those surveyed after five rounds of MDA denied having ever taken the medications and 52.4% reported that they had taken all five doses. The mf and antigenemia rates were 0.2% and 2.7% in those who reported five doses of MDA and 8.3% and 13.8% in those who reported zero doses. There was no significant difference in residual infection rates among those who had taken two or more doses. These results underscore the importance of compliance for LF elimination programs based on MDA and suggest that two ingested doses of MDA are as effective as five doses for reducing filariasis infection rates.