Donor airway ischemia is a significant problem after clinical lung transplantation despite the use of omentopexy for accelerated local bronchial revascularization. Several growth factors have been shown to induce angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In the present study the quantitative effects on tracheal revascularization and epithelial regeneration of omentopexy and continuous local administration of basic fibroblast growth factor were investigated in a heterotopic rat tracheal isograft model. Tracheas were harvested from donor rats and heterotopically implanted into the omentum of syngeneic recipient rats. Animals were randomly assigned to study groups differing only in treatment of the tracheal segments: omental wrap for 2, 7, or 14 days; omental wrap plus continuous local administration of basic fibroblast growth factor for 7 or 14 days; or omental wrap plus local application of saline for 7 or 14 days. Two, 7, or 14 days after the animals were put to death, the vascularity of the tracheal segments and attached omentum and the tracheal epithelial morphology were assessed in a blinded fashion with use of light microscopy and morphometric image analysis. Vascularity in tracheal segments treated with basic fibroblast growth factor was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than in control tracheas after 7 and 14 days. Epithelial regeneration was also improved in the basic fibroblast growth factor-treated groups at days 7 and 14 (p < 0.05). We conclude that continuous local administration of basic fibroblast growth factor enhances early revascularization of tracheal segments induced by omentopexy and accelerates epithelial regeneration in a heterotopic rat tracheal isograft model.