Objective: To describe the distribution of post-void residual (PVR) volumes across patients with and without lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and examine relationships between self-reported voiding symptoms, storage symptoms, and PVR. Methods: PVR and demographic data were obtained from the Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network (LURN) observational cohort study. Self-reported symptoms were collected using the American Urological Association Symptom Index and the LUTS Tool. PVR values were obtained from 2 other cohorts: living kidney donors with unknown LUTS from the Renal and Lung Living Donors Evaluation Study (RELIVE), and continent women in the Establishing the Prevalence of Incontinence (EPI) study, a population-based study of racial differences in urinary incontinence prevalence. Results: Across the 3 studies, median PVRs were similar: 26 mL in LURN (n = 880, range 0-932 mL), 20 mL in EPI (n = 166, range 0-400 mL), and 14 mL in RELIVE (n = 191, range 0-352 mL). In LURN, males had 3.6 times higher odds of having PVR > 200 mL (95% CI = 1.72-7.48). In RELIVE, median PVR was significantly higher for males (20 mL vs 0 mL, P=.004). Among women, only the intermittency severity rating was associated with a probability of an elevated PVR. Among men, incomplete emptying and burning severity rating were associated with a higher odds of elevated PVR, but urgency severity ratings were associated with lower odds of elevated PVR. Conclusion: Care-seeking patients have PVRs similar to those in people with unknown history of LUTS (RELIVE) and without self-reported LUTS (EPI). Although PVR was correlated with voiding symptoms, the mean differences only explain ∼2% of the variance.