The Cortical Physiology of Ipsilateral Limb Movements

David T. Bundy, Eric C. Leuthardt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Whereas voluntary movements have long been understood to derive primarily from the cortical hemisphere contralateral to a moving limb, substantial cortical activations also occur in the same-sided, or ipsilateral, cortical hemisphere. These ipsilateral motor activations have recently been shown to be useful to decode specific movement features. Furthermore, in contrast to the classical understanding that unilateral limb movements are solely driven by the contralateral hemisphere, it appears that the ipsilateral hemisphere plays an active and specific role in the planning and execution of voluntary movements. Here we review the movement-related activations observed in the ipsilateral cortical hemisphere, interpret this evidence in light of the potential roles of the ipsilateral hemisphere in the planning and execution of movements, and describe the implications for clinical populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)825-839
Number of pages15
JournalTrends in Neurosciences
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2019


  • bimanual coordination
  • ipsilateral
  • motor control
  • voluntary movement


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