The correlation of tissue motion within the lung: Implications on fiducial based treatments

Ryan L. Smith, Deshan Yang, Andrew Lee, Martin L. Mayse, Dan A. Low, Parag J. Parikh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


In radiation therapy many motion management and alignment techniques rely on the accuracy of an internal fiducial acting as a surrogate for target motion within the lung. Although fiducials are routinely used as surrogates for tumor motion, the extent to which varying spatial locations in the lung move similarly to other locations has yet to be quantitatively analyzed. In an attempt to analyze the motion correlation throughout the lung, ten primary lung cancer patients underwent IRB-approved 4DCT scans in the supine position. Deformable registration produced motion vectors for each voxel between exhalation and inhalation. Modeling was performed for each vector and all surrounding vectors within the lung in order to determine the mean 3D Euclidean distance necessary for an implanted fiducial to correlate with surrounding tissue motion to within 3 mm (left lower: 1.7 cm, left upper: 2.1 cm, right lower 1.6 cm, and right upper 2.9 cm). No general implantation rule of where to position a fiducial with respect to the tumor was found as the motion is highly patient and lobe specific. Correlation maps are presented showcasing spatial anisotropy of the motion of tissue surrounding the tumor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5992-5997
Number of pages6
JournalMedical physics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • fiducial marker
  • lung
  • motion management
  • radiation therapy


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