The complement cascade is a principal component of innate immunity. Recent studies have underscored the importance of C5a and other components of the complement system in inflammatory and neuropathic pain, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In particular, it is unclear how the complement system communicates with nociceptors and which ion channels and receptors are involved. Here we demonstrate that inflammatory thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant was accompanied by C5a upregulation and was markedly reduced by C5a receptor (C5aR1) knock-out or treatment with the C5aR1 antagonist PMX53. Direct administration of C5a into the mouse hindpaw produced strong thermal hyperalgesia, an effect that was absent in TRPV1 knock-out mice, and was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810. Immunohistochemistry of mouse plantar skin showed prominent expression of C5aR1 in macrophages. Additionally, C5a evoked strong Ca2+ mobilization in macrophages. Macrophage depletion in transgenic macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis mice abolished C5a-dependent thermal hyperalgesia. Examination of inflammatory mediators following C5a injection revealed a rapid upregulation of NGF, a mediator known to sensitize TRPV1. Preinjection of an NGFneutralizing antibody or Trk inhibitor GNF-5837 prevented C5a-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Notably, NGF-induced thermal hyperalgesia was unaffected by macrophage depletion. Collectively, these results suggest that complement fragment C5a induces thermal hyperalgesia by triggering macrophage-dependent signaling that involves mobilization of NGF and NGF-dependent sensitization of TRPV1. Our findings highlight the importance of macrophage-to-neuron signaling in pain processing and identify C5a, NGF, and TRPV1 as key players in this cross-cellular communication.