Context: TSH receptor (TSHR) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene mutations occur independently. This is the first report of their coexistence in the same individuals. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the genotype-phenotype correlations when mutations in both genes are present alone or together in the same individual. Patients and Methods: Thirty subjects from an extended Arab kindred underwent clinical investigation and molecular studies of the mutant TSHRs. Results: A novel mutant TSHR was identified, involving four nucleotides at three sites on the same allele, c.267G>T (L89L), c.269/270AG>CT (Q90P), and c.790C>T (P264S). In addition, two known TPO gene mutations, G493S and R540X, were identified. Thirteen heterozygotes for the mutant TSHR allele had mild hyperthyrotropinemia. In nine of theses, the coexistence of a TPO mutation in one allele did not magnify the hyperthyrotropinemia. Homozygotes for the mutant TSHR and a compound heterozygote for the TPO mutations presented frank hypothyroidism. In vitro studies showed increasing loss of function for Q90P less than P264S less than Q90P/P264S TSHR mutants, the latter being that expressed in the subjects under investigation. The two interchangeably used WT TSHR vectors, L87 and V87, although functionally identical, differed in structure and function in the presence of the Q90P mutation. Conclusions: TSHR and TPO gene mutations were identified alone and together in individuals of a consanguineous kindred. Homozygotes for the TSHR and a compound heterozygote for the TPO mutations were hypothyroid. The mild hyperthyrotropinemia of heterozygotes for the mutant TSHR allele was not aggravated by the coexistence of a TPO defect in one allele.