Deciphering how the human striatum develops is necessary for understanding the diseases that affect this region. To decode the transcriptional modules that regulate this structure during development, we compiled a catalog of 1116 long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) identified de novo and then profiled 96,789 single cells from the early human fetal striatum. We found that D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons (D1- A nd D2-MSNs) arise from a common progenitor and that lineage commitment is established during the postmitotic transition, across a pre-MSN phase that exhibits a continuous spectrum of fate determinants. We then uncovered cell type-specific gene regulatory networks that we validated through in silico perturbation. Finally, we identified human-specific lincRNAs that contribute to the phylogenetic divergence of this structure in humans. This work delineates the cellular hierarchies governing MSN lineage commitment.