Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), like other lentiviruses, is capable of infecting nondividing T cells and macrophages. The present work shows that in HIV-2-infected cells, Vpx is necessary for efficient nuclear import of the preintegration complex. In agreement with this finding, the subcellular localization of a GFP-Vpx fusion protein was found to be predominantly nuclear. However, deletion of the proline-rich C-terminal 11 residues of Vpx resulted in a shift of the fusion protein to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the same deletion in the context of the provirus resulted in a decrease in nuclear import of the preintegration complex and attenuated replication in macrophages.