Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and regions (IDRs) have emerged as key players across many biological functions and diseases. Differently from structured proteins, disordered proteins lack stable structure and are particularly sensitive to changes in the surrounding environment. Investigation of disordered ensembles requires new approaches and concepts for quantifying conformations, dynamics, and interactions. Here, we provide a short description of the fundamental biophysical properties of disordered proteins as understood through the lens of single-molecule fluorescence observations. Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) provides an extensive and versatile toolbox for quantifying the characteristics of conformational distributions and the dynamics of disordered proteins across many different solution conditions, both in vitro and in living cells.