The 2023 Orthopaedic Research Society's International Consensus Meeting on musculoskeletal infection: Summary from the host immunity section

Edward M. Schwarz, Nathan K. Archer, Gerald J. Atkins, Karen Mesy Bentley, Mina Botros, James E. Cassat, Emanuele Chisari, Débora C. Coraça-Huber, John L. Daiss, Steven R. Gill, Stuart B. Goodman, Janette Harro, Christopher J. Hernandez, Lionel B. Ivashkiv, Stephen L. Kates, Cláudia N.H. Marques, Elysia A. Masters, Gowrishankar Muthukrishnan, John R. Owen, Dina RaafatMotoo Saito, Deborah J. Veis, Chao Xie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Musculoskeletal infections (MSKI), which are a major problem in orthopedics, occur when the pathogen eludes or overwhelms the host immune system. While effective vaccines and immunotherapies to prevent and treat MSKI should be possible, fundamental knowledge gaps in our understanding of protective, nonprotective, and pathogenic host immunity are prohibitive. We also lack critical knowledge of how host immunity is affected by the microbiome, implants, prior infection, nutrition, antibiotics, and concomitant therapies, autoimmunity, and other comorbidities. To define our current knowledge of these critical topics, a Host Immunity Section of the 2023 Orthopaedic Research Society MSKI International Consensus Meeting (ICM) proposed 78 questions. Systematic reviews were performed on 15 of these questions, upon which recommendations with level of evidence were voted on by the 72 ICM delegates, and another 12 questions were voted on with a recommendation of “Unknown” without systematic reviews. Two questions were transferred to another ICM Section, and the other 45 were tabled for future consideration due to limitations of available human resources. Here we report the results of the voting with internet access to the questions, recommendations, and rationale from the systematic reviews. Eighteen questions received a consensus vote of ≥90%, while nine recommendations failed to achieve this threshold. Commentary on why consensus was not achieved on these questions and potential ways forward are provided to stimulate specific funding mechanisms and research on these critical MSKI host defense questions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)518-530
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • International Consensus Meeting
  • host immunity
  • musculoskeletal infection (MSKI)
  • osteomyelitis
  • periprosthetic joint infection
  • surgical site infection


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