Purpose of review: Compelling evidence suggests that the Th17 lineage and other IL-17-producing cells play critical roles in host defense against pathogens at mucosal sites. However, IL-17 can also contribute to inflammatory responses at mucosal sites. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress in our understanding of the role of Th17 and other IL-17-producing cells in defining the fine balance between immunity and inflammation at different mucosal sites. Recent fndings: Recent findings have highlighted that Th17 cytokines are important for the induction of innate and adaptive host responses and contribute to host defense against pathogens at mucosal sites. More recent developments have probed how the Th17 responses are generated in vivo in response to infections and their requirement in maintaining barrier function at mucosal sites. Most importantly, it is becoming apparent that there is a fine balance between protective and pathological manifestation of Th17 responses at mucosal sites that defines immunity or inflammation. Summary: In this review, we have summarized the recent advances in our understanding of Th17 cytokines and how they contribute to immunity versus inflammation at mucosal sites.