Tetralogy of fallot with complete digeorge syndrome: Report of a case and a review of the literature

Daisuke Kobayashi, Salaam Sallaam, Richard A. Humes

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6 Scopus citations


Complete DiGeorge syndrome (CDGS) has a severe T-cell immunodeficiency and is fatal without thymus or bone marrow transplantation. Associated congenital heart disease (CHD) further complicates the clinical management. We report an infant with tetralogy of Fallot, confluent and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries, right aortic arch, and aberrant left subclavian artery. He was athymic with no CD3+ T cells. CDGS was diagnosed with 22q11.2 deletion. The patient underwent central aortopulmonary shunt at 12 days of age. The patient died at 5 weeks of age awaiting thymus transplantation. We performed a review of the literature regarding CDGS and CHD. We found 43 cases including conotruncal defects (20) and nonconotruncal defects (23). The overall mortality rate was 67%. Among 30 cases undergoing transplantation (bone marrow 16 and thymus 12, bone marrow + thymus 2), the mortality rate was 53%. The patients with conotruncal defects were more likely to die before transplantation (45% vs. 16%, P =.04). The main cause of death was infection before and after transplantation. We conclude that children with CDGS and CHD have a high mortality. Bone marrow and thymus transplantation can improve the survival, but the overall management of these high risk patients remains challenging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E119-E126
JournalCongenital Heart Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2013


  • Bone marrow transplantation
  • Complete DiGeorge syndrome
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Tetralogy of fallot
  • Thymus transplantation


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