Testosterone and growth hormone improve body composition and muscle performance in older men

Fred R. Sattler, Carmen Castaneda-Sceppa, Ellen F. Binder, E. Todd Schroeder, Ying Wang, Shalender Bhasin, Miwa Kawakubo, Yolanda Stewart, Kevin E. Yarasheski, Jagadish Ulloor, Patrick Colletti, Ronenn Roubenoff, Stanley P. Azen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

135 Scopus citations

Abstract

Context: Impairments in the pituitary-gonadal axis with aging are associated with loss of muscle mass and function and accumulation of upper body fat. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that physiological supplementation with testosterone and GH together improves body composition and muscle performance in older men. Design, Setting, and Participants: One hundred twenty-two community-dwelling men 70.8 ± 4.2 yr of age with body mass index of 27.4 ± 3.4 kg/m2, testosterone of 550 ng/dl or less, and IGF-I in lower adult tertile (≤167 ng/dl) were randomized to receive transdermal testosterone (5 or 10 g/d) during a Leydig cell clamp plus GH (0, 3, or 5 μg/kg·d) for 16 wk. Main Outcome Measures: Body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, muscle performance, and safety tests were conducted. Results: Total lean body mass increased (1.0 ± 1.7 to 3.0 ± 2.2 kg) as did appendicular lean tissue (0.4 ± 1.4 to 1.5 ± 1.3 kg), whereas total fat mass decreased by 0.4 ± 0.9 to 2.3 ± 1.7 kg as did trunk fat (0.5 ± 0.9 to 1.5 ± 1.0 kg) across the six treatment groups and by dose levels for each parameter (P ≤ 0.0004 for linear trend). Composite maximum voluntary strength of upper and lower body muscles increased by 14 ± 34 to 35 ± 31% (P < 0.003 in the three highest dose groups) that correlated with changes in appendicular lean mass. Aerobic endurance increased in all six groups (average 96 ± 137sec longer). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased similarly in each group with mean increases of 12 ± 14 and 8 ± 8 mm Hg, respectively. Other predictable adverse events were modest and reversible. Conclusions: Supplemental testosterone produced significant gains in total and appendicular lean mass, muscle strength, and aerobic endurance with significant reductions in whole-body and trunk fat. Outcomes appeared to be further enhanced with GH supplementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1991-2001
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume94
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2009

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    Sattler, F. R., Castaneda-Sceppa, C., Binder, E. F., Schroeder, E. T., Wang, Y., Bhasin, S., Kawakubo, M., Stewart, Y., Yarasheski, K. E., Ulloor, J., Colletti, P., Roubenoff, R., & Azen, S. P. (2009). Testosterone and growth hormone improve body composition and muscle performance in older men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94(6), 1991-2001. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-2338