PURPOSE: Radical cystectomy is the gold standard for nonmetastatic muscle invasive bladder cancer and for refractory nonmuscle invasive disease. Compared to open radical cystectomy, robot-assisted radical cystectomy has been shown to provide comparable early oncologic outcomes and improved perioperative outcomes. However, there is a paucity of data on long-term oncologic outcomes and concerns about a higher incidence of local recurrence after robot-assisted radical cystectomy. We report 10-year oncologic outcomes following robot-assisted radical cystectomy using a multinational database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the prospective International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium database. Consecutive patients who underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy 10 years ago or earlier were included in analysis. Data were reviewed for demographics, and perioperative, pathological and oncologic outcomes. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to depict recurrence-free, disease specific and overall survival. Multivariate stepwise Cox regression models were applied to identify variables associated with recurrence-free, disease specific and overall survival. RESULTS: We identified 446 patients with a median age of 67 years (IQR 59-76). Of the patients 10% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 51% experienced any complication, 23% had high grade complications and 4% died within 3 months of robot-assisted radical cystectomy. Disease was pT3 or greater in 43% of patients and pN+ in 24% while a positive soft tissue surgical margin was observed in 7%. At a median followup of 5 years (IQR 2-10, maximum 14) local and distant recurrence had developed in 15% and 29% of patients, respectively. Ten-year recurrence-free, disease specific and overall survival rates were 59%, 65% and 35%, respectively. Patients with pT3 or greater and pN+ disease showed worse recurrence-free, disease specific and overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term oncologic outcomes, and recurrence rates and patterns after robot-assisted radical cystectomy seem comparable to those in open series. Advanced disease stage and positive surgical margins remain the main determinants of survival after radical cystectomy.
- robotic surgical procedures
- urinary bladder neoplasms