Temperatures Achieved in Human and Canine Neocortex During Intraoperative Passive or Active Focal Cooling

Matthew D. Smyth, Rowland H. Han, Chester K. Yarbrough, Edward E. Patterson, Xiao Feng Yang, John W. Miller, Steven M. Rothman, Raimondo D'Ambrosio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Focal cortical cooling inhibits seizures and prevents acquired epileptogenesis in rodents. To investigate the potential clinical utility of this treatment modality, we examined the thermal characteristics of canine and human brain undergoing active and passive surface cooling in intraoperative settings. Four patients with intractable epilepsy were treated in a standard manner. Before the resection of a neocortical epileptogenic focus, multiple intraoperative studies of active (custom-made cooled irrigation-perfused grid) and passive (stainless steel probe) cooling were performed. We also actively cooled the neocortices of two dogs with perfused grids implanted for 2 hours. Focal surface cooling of the human brain causes predictable depth-dependent cooling of the underlying brain tissue. Cooling of 0.6-2°C was achieved both actively and passively to a depth of 10-15 mm from the cortical surface. The perfused grid permitted comparable and persistent cooling of canine neocortex when the craniotomy was closed. Thus, the human cortex can easily be cooled with the use of simple devices such as a cooling grid or a small passive probe. These techniques provide pilot data for the design of a permanently implantable device to control intractable epilepsy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-103
Number of pages9
JournalTherapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015


Dive into the research topics of 'Temperatures Achieved in Human and Canine Neocortex During Intraoperative Passive or Active Focal Cooling'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this