We have performed five single lung transplantations for end-stage pulmonary fibrosis, with four long-term survivors. Two patients underwent right lung transplantation and two underwent left lung transplantation. The procedure is performed with one lung anesthesia, although cardiopulmonary bypass is available on standby if required. Donor and recipient procedures are performed in adjacent operating rooms. On the basis of laboratory studies, a pedicle of omentum is wrapped around the bronchial anastomosis after its completion to restore bronchial artery circulation and protect the anastomosis. The four patients were discharged from the hospital within 4 to 6 weeks and three returned to normal employment at 3 months. Success in these cases is attributed to careful patient selection, use of cyclosporine, and use of an omental pedicle to protect and improve healing of the bronchial anastomosis.