Background: Artifacts from implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are a challenge to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT). Purpose: This study tested an unsupervised generative adversarial network to mitigate ICD artifacts in balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cine MRIs and improve image quality and tracking performance for MRgRT. Methods: Fourteen healthy volunteers (Group A) were scanned on a 0.35 T MRI-Linac with and without an MR conditional ICD taped to their left pectoral to simulate an implanted ICD. bSSFP MRI data from 12 of the volunteers were used to train a CycleGAN model to reduce ICD artifacts. The data from the remaining two volunteers were used for testing. In addition, the dataset was reorganized three times using a Leave-One-Out scheme. Tracking metrics [Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), target registration error (TRE), and 95 percentile Hausdorff distance (95% HD)] were evaluated for whole-heart contours. Image quality metrics [normalized root mean square error (nRMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and multiscale structural similarity (MS-SSIM) scores] were evaluated. The technique was also tested qualitatively on three additional ICD datasets (Group B) including a patient with an implanted ICD. Results: For the whole-heart contour with CycleGAN reconstruction: 1) Mean DSC rose from 0.910 to 0.935; 2) Mean TRE dropped from 4.488 to 2.877 mm; and 3) Mean 95% HD dropped from 10.236 to 7.700 mm. For the whole-body slice with CycleGAN reconstruction: 1) Mean nRMSE dropped from 0.644 to 0.420; 2) Mean MS-SSIM rose from 0.779 to 0.819; and 3) Mean PSNR rose from 18.744 to 22.368. The three Group B datasets evaluated qualitatively displayed a reduction in ICD artifacts in the heart. Conclusion: CycleGAN-generated reconstructions significantly improved both tracking and image quality metrics when used to mitigate artifacts from ICDs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14304
JournalJournal of applied clinical medical physics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • ICD
  • MRI
  • artifact
  • deep learning


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