Cytokines and growth factors mediate inflammatory osteolysis in response to particles released from bone implants. However, the mechanism by which this process develops is not entirely clear. Blood vessels and related factors may be required to deliver immune cells and soluble factors to the injury site. Therefore, in the current study we investigated if, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is required for angiogenesis, mediates polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles-induced osteolysis. Using bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs) and ST2 stromal cell line, we show that PMMA particles increase VEGF expression. Further, using a murine calvarial osteolysis model, we found that PMMA injection over calvaria induce significant increase in VEGF expression as well as new vessel formation, represented by von Willebrand factor (vWF) staining. Co-treatment using a VEGF-neutralizing antibody abrogated expression of vWF, indicating decreased angiogenesis. Finally, VEGF neutralizing antibody reduced expression of Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and decreased osteoclastogenesis induced by PMMA particles in calvariae. This work highlights the significance of angiogenesis, specifically VEGF, as key driver of PMMA particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis, inhibition of which attenuates this response.