Current seasonal influenza vaccines, which mainly target hemagglutinin (HA), require annual updates due to the continuous antigenic drift of the influenza virus. Developing an influenza vaccine with increased breadth of protection will have significant public health benefits. The recent discovery of broadly protective antibodies to neuraminidase (NA) has provided important insights into developing a universal influenza vaccine, either by improving seasonal influenza vaccines or designing novel immunogens. However, further in-depth molecular characterizations of NA antibody responses are warranted to fully leverage broadly protective NA antibodies for influenza vaccine designs. Overall, we posit that focusing on NA for influenza vaccine development is synergistic with existing efforts targeting HA, and may represent a cost-effective approach to generating a broadly protective influenza vaccine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-19
Number of pages9
JournalTrends in Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • antibody
  • immunogen design
  • influenza virus
  • neuraminidase
  • vaccine


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