Following loss of functional small bowel surface area due to surgical resection, the remnant gut undergoes an adaptive response characterized by increased crypt cell proliferation and enhanced villus height and crypt depth, resulting in augmented intestinal nutrient absorptive capacity. Previous studies showed that expression of the immediate early gene tis7 is markedly up-regulated in intestinal enterocytes during the adaptive response. To study its role in the enterocyte, transgenic mice were generated that specifically overexpress TIS7 in the gut. Nucleotides -596 to +21 of the rat liver fatty acid-binding protein promoter were used to direct abundant overexpression of TIS7 into small intestinal upper crypt and villus enterocytes. TIS7 transgenic mice had increased total body adiposity and decreased lean muscle mass compared with normal littermates. Oxygen consumption levels, body weight, surface area, and small bowel weight were decreased. On a high fat diet, transgenic mice exhibited a more rapid and proportionately greater gain in body weight with persistently elevated total body adiposity and increased hepatic fat accumulation. Bolus fat feeding resulted in a greater increase in serum triglyceride levels and an accelerated appearance of enterocytic, lamina propria, and hepatic fat Changes in fat homeostasis were linked to increased expression of genes involved in enterocytic triglyceride metabolism and changes in growth with decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 expression. Thus, TIS7 overexpression in the intestine altered growth, metabolic rate, adiposity, and intestinal triglyceride absorption. These results suggest that TIS7 is a unique mediator of nutrient absorptive and metabolic adaptation following gut resection.