BALB/c mice immunized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa immunotype 1 polysaccharide develop protective T cell immunity to bacterial challenge. In vitro, T cells from immunized mice kill P. aeruginosa by production of a bactericidal lymphokine. The present study demonstrates that adoptive transfer of T cells from immunized BALB/c mice to granulocytopenic mice resulted in 97% survival on challenge with P. aeruginosa, compared with 17% survival with adoptive transfer of T cells from nonimmune BALB/c mice. This protection is specifically elicited by reexposure to the original immunizing antigen; adoptive recipients cannot withstand challenge with immunotype 3 P. aeruginosa. However, the adoptive recipients do survive simultaneous infection with both P. aeruginosa immunotypes 1 and 3. Adoptive transfer of T cells from the congenic CB.20 mice, which are unable to kill P. aeruginosa in vitro, provides only 20% protection to granulocytopenic mice. These studies indicate that transfer to specific immune T lymphocytes can significantly enhance the resistance to P. aeruginosa infection in granulocytopenic mice.