Systemic hypertension (HTN) is a recognized complication of veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in children. We sought to determine the prevalence and associated features of HTN in a retrospective cohort of children (>1 year old) supported with VV ECMO from January 2015 to July 2019 at our institution. Patient and ECMO-related characteristics were reviewed, including intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), ECMO duration, corticosteroids and nephrotoxic medication exposure, acute kidney injury (AKI), overall fluid balance, and transfusion data. We analyzed 23 children (43% female) with a median age of 8.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 4-14.5). Median ICU LOS was 26 days (IQR = 15-47) with a median ECMO duration of 288 hours (IQR = 106-378) and a mortality rate of 35%. HTN was diagnosed in 87% subjects at a median of 25 ECMO hours (IQR = 9-54) of whom 55% were hypertensive >50% of their ECMO duration. AKI and fluid overload were documented in >50% of cohort. All but two subjects received at least one nephrotoxic medication, and nearly all received corticosteroids. Our data demonstrate that HTN is present in a preponderance of children supported with VV ECMO and appears within the first 3 days of cannulation. Underlying etiology is likely multifactorial.
- ECMO adverse effects