Systematic review of healthcare-associated Burkholderia cepacia complex outbreaks: presentation, causes and outbreak control

Emmanuel Häfliger, Andrew Atkinson, Jonas Marschall

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4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Over the past decades, the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) has been linked to multiple healthcare-associated outbreaks. No systematic analysis of these outbreaks has been carried out to date. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of reports on nosocomial BCC outbreaks. Methods: Published studies from 1971 until 9/12/2019 presenting nosocomial BCC outbreaks were identified using Embase, Pubmed and abstracts from professional meetings. Results: We identified a total of 111 outbreak reports. Thirty-two percent of the affected institutions were academic hospitals and 43.8% community hospitals. The average outbreak duration was 198.6 ± 604.4 days. A total of 240 deaths (10% of the 2390 case patients) were reported but only 28 (1.2% of the 2390 case patients and 11.7% of the 240 deaths) were directly attributable to BCC. The source could be identified in 73.9% of the outbreaks; 53.2% were caused by contaminated medical solutions and medications, 12% were due to a contaminated disinfectant. In 28.2% of the outbreaks intrinsic product contamination was reported. Multidrug resistance was noted in 26.1% of the BCC strains. PFGE was the most frequently used typing method (43.2%) in the context of outbreak work-up. Conclusion: Medical products are the most frequent source of BCC outbreaks, representing over half of the identified sources, with 12% of the outbreaks caused by disinfectant products. Intrinsic product contamination was detected frequently, suggesting a need for stricter regulation. While BCC-related mortality was low, our systematic review revealed significant heterogeneity in both investigations and reporting of BCC outbreaks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100082
JournalInfection Prevention in Practice
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2020

Keywords

  • Burkholderia cepacia
  • Disinfectant
  • Intrinsic
  • Nocosomial
  • Outbreak

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